Cigars 101

5 Things You Need To Know About… Maduro Cigars

Are you ready to dance with the Capa Negra?

Today, we salute the Maduro-nados among us: we share a fine appreciation for the slow-smoking satisfaction of this sweet, dark leaf. I’m right there with you – show me a thick n’ juicy Broadleaf, and I’m on it like a fat kid on cake. But can you explain why you became…Mad for Maduro? (Props to Brother Gary as I just stole his catchphrase.)

5-things about maduro cigars wheels of maduro cigars
Meet Maduro, the Wrapper of the Day: for many of us, seeing these wheels is like ringing the dinner bell.

If you’re new to cigars, the whole concept might seem odd: How do they get those cigars so dark? What makes them so different? What does Maduro mean in cigars, anyway? The short answers are fermentation, lots of things, and it means “mature,” as in ripened. From there, the rabbit hole goes deeper; the good news is, there are plenty of reasons to go pro-level with your appreciation for this delicious cigar choice. So let’s explore with a full-on brain dump about Maduro cigars, along with a little bit on why they’ve become such a fan favorite. And so you can talk Maduro like and expert, I’ve trimmed it down to the following Five Things You Need to Know…

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#1. No, Maduro Cigars Are Not Stronger

Take note, as it’s No. 1 for noobs to know: darker cigars don’t mean stronger cigars. At least, not always. Our beer-ficionado friends will tell you the same thing about their craft brews: a thick, dark stout doesn’t necessarily have as high an ABV, and usually isn’t as strong, as many ales and IPAs. Again, Maduro en Español simply means “ripe” – fuerte is how we say “strong.”

5 things about maduro cigars different colors of cigars
It’s very possible that the cigars on the left are stronger than the ones in the middle or on the right – it depends on the blend as a whole.

A Maduro cigar actually has a lot in common with a dark beer: both have that deep color, can range from sweet to bitter in taste, and are complex in flavor. They even share a couple of tasting notes, such as chocolate and pepper – a few reasons why they pair so well.

While some blenders claim as much as 70% of a cigar’s flavor comes from the wrapper, the strength comes from within: the more potent higher priming leaves, such as Ligero, are what make you “feel it.”

All that said, some Maduro cigars really are wicked strong – but it’s usually not the Maduro leaf that’s doing the dirty work, unless the wrapper leaf itself was taken from very high up on the plant. That’s why it’s important to consult the blend to see what other characteristics the cigar may have. Case in point: I saw a list of “Maduro cigars for the beginner” that included the Padron 1926, LFD Double Ligero Chisel, plus Perdomo, Liga and Partagas Maduros. More like “Maduro cigars for the beginner who wants to turn green.” So maybe a better way to say it is, Not all Maduros are strong…but some strong cigars may be Maduro.” It all depends on what color, flavor and strength the Master Blender desires for the end result.

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#2. The Many Shades of Maduro

When you’re talking tobacco, Maduro describes nothing more than the cigar’s color. Most of us cigar smokers are used to the idea that a Maduro cigar stands out because it’s dark…but when you put it side by side with an Oscuro, the color difference becomes much clearer:

5 things about maduro cigars darker cigar wrappers guide
The basic differences between cigar wrapper colors, with Maduro toward the darker end of the scale (to the right). Click to download our Ring Gauge & Wrapper Guide FREE.

Wrapper tobacco is cured to a shade of brown; but how dark the leaf gets depends on the intensity of the fermentation phase, and how many times the tobacco is subjected to that process. The result is a variation of color grades within the Maduro range, with a little bit of give-and-take between each:

  • Colorado Maduro – the lightest of the Maduros, it may also include cigars whose wrappers could be described as “dark natural” by the factory’s quality control people – but end up as “Maduro” on looks alone.
  • Maduro – that traditional shade of dark brown, like a coffee bean or a coconut.
  • Maduro-Maduro – aka “double Maduro” (more on that in a minute), it’s a deep shade of brown that shares the color of really dark chocolate. It’s often used interchangeably with…
  • Oscuro – taken literally, it means “dark” – but actually covers the rest of the wrapper colors from very dark brown to jet black.

As the shades get darker, the wrappers tend to get oilier…a little thicker, too. A thicker leaf makes for wrapper seams that are a little more noticeable on the roll – and the flavor of a fat, juicy leaf is likely to be a bit more intense. Of course, you won’t know until you light it up.

As for the case of the mysterious Double Maduro…These days, that term has been tapped to describe either color or construction (or sometimes both): Double Maduro originally described a darker Maduro wrapper, on par with Oscuro. Now, Double Maduro is more often used – rightly or wrongly – to describe a cigar made with a Maduro wrapper and a Maduro binder.

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#3. All Maduros Are Not Created Equal

Like anything you eat, drink or smoke, the flavor of a cigar is affected by everything that went into making it. The DNA of a good Maduro is more diverse than your 23andMe report, and it’s based on no fewer than five things:

What Kind of Tobacco is Used

5 things about maduro cigars ct broadleaf maduro hands
Hands of Drew Estate’s Broadleaf tobacco, the most popular choice to make Maduro.

Because it requires extra fermentation, the leaf has to be tough enough to stand up to the higher heat and rigors required to produce a Maduro – and not all tobacco varietals can roll with the punches. Here’s a quick look at the most commonly used leaves:

  • Broadleaf: far and away, the most popular choice for Maduro cigar wrappers. Known for its meaty and somewhat toasty-sweet taste (think Liga Privada), it’s grown primarily in Connecticut – though Pennsylvania Broadleaf is quickly regaining some status among cigar makers for its thick, earthy and more peppery flavor.
  • San Andres: a Mexican-seed leaf now running a close second to the Broadleaf varietals in popularity, it produces Maduros that are very thick and oily. The Oliva Serie V Melanio is a good example of San Andres’ bold taste: spice, slightly-sweet chocolate and earth.
  • Brazil: Mata Fina and Arapiraca make great Maduros, because they can span the flavor range from cocoa-sweet and complex to rocking your taste buds with a hearty, earthy spice. Thick, oily leaves make Brazilian tobacco a go-to for smooth and rich character, as is evident in CAO Brazilia.
  • Habano: it simply means “Cuban-seed,” and is grown throughout the tobacco belt. Padron uses a Nicaraguan Habano on their 1964 Anniversary to get that classic sweet Maduro taste; Nick Perdomo uses it to get great flavor from his Habano Barrel Aged cigars: “Being a Maduro lover, what I love about the Cuban-seed Maduro we produce is how rich it tastes and that natural, chocolatey sweetness that comes through,” he told us.

Where the Tobacco is Grown

Aging, fermenting and blending the tobaccos all contribute to your cigar’s flavor – but as many a Master Blender has told us, “the soil is what makes the difference.” Where the tobacco is grown – specifically, the unique soil and climate – has a profound effect on what it tastes like when it’s ready to smoke.

5 things about maduro cigars pa broadleaf tobacco rows
Broadleaf really likes Pennsylvania’s thick, rocky soil, which imparts a full and spicy flavor into the tobacco.

How the Leaf is Cultivated

To get that thick, meaty leaf ready to make into a Maduro, the plant gets full exposure to the sun and is “topped” – removing the flowers – so that the plant puts all its energy into fattening up those leaves and producing more of the natural oils and sugars that contribute to taste. As with all tobacco, the leaves closer to the top of the plant have the potential to smoke with more intense flavor and strength; the leaves farther down the stalk tend to be a little more mellow.

5 things about maduro cigars topped tobacco flowers
Tobacco plants flower at the top; with these flowers removed, the plant throws all its energy into growing bigger, tastier leaves.

How the Tobacco is Harvested

Tobacco is either primed or stalk-cut; most Maduro wrappers come from the latter. But to be able to withstand the demands of heavy fermenting, the thick, sun-ripened wrapper leaves will need to have come from the top two-thirds of the tobacco plant.

5 things about maduro cigars ct broadleaf stalk cut tobacco
This is stalk-cut Broadleaf at Altadis USA’s farm in Somers, CT. The whole plant is taken all at once, with a massive pruning tool.

How the Leaf is Processed

Some Maduros aren’t sweet at all, and that’s by design: the blender is looking to make a cigar that incorporates certain characteristics from the fillers, binder and wrapper. Beyond the blend, that’s all accomplished through manipulating the curing, fermenting and aging stages of the process. And once it’s assembled, the finished product smokes with its own unique, desirable mix of flavors.

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#4. Turn Up the Heat: How Maduro Wrappers are Made

Here’s what’s interesting: the extra fermentation is what actually makes Maduro more mellow. Once it comes out of the curing barn and into the factory, the tobacco is piled into two-ton pilons – kind of like controlled compost heaps, where the leaves develop their flavors and aromas, and the nicotine and ammonia diminish. Tobacco that’s destined to be Maduro is fermented longer (we’re talking months), at a higher temperature; the process may be repeated as many as three or more times to get a super-dark leaf.

5 things about maduro cigars habano maduro pilon
More pressure and heat make for a more intense fermentation; the plastic is used to keep moisture in the pilon, ripening the tobacco even more.

“Leaf characteristics such as the aroma, flavor and color are further developed during this process, according to pre-determined standards that we actually control as the tobacco ferments,” says Jhonys Diaz (General Cigar VP of Tobacco Operations), who walks you through the whole labor-intensive process here.

That extra fermenting time makes for a rich, yet smoother-smoking tobacco: the nicotine content has dropped, and the starches in the leaf have turned to sugars, adding sweetness. Good tobacco can’t be rushed; and while there are shortcuts to fermenting cigar tobacco to a darker color, patience is key.

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#5. Maduro is a Slow Burner

Now that you know why Maduro tobacco develops such a thick, oily character, you see why a hearty Maduro cigar burns so slow. The binder is supposed to keep all the parts of a cigar burning in harmony – but a wrapper that thick and oily can be hard for the binder to keep in check, causing the cigar’s burn line to be wavy, or even canoe or tunnel.

That’s why we preach that how you light your cigar will affect the entire smoking experience: toast your cigar, then light it – and make sure the entire foot is glowing orange before you put the flame away.

If you’re still running into burn issues, there is plenty of evidence that Maduro cigars smoke a little better if you keep them in a humidor with a lower relative humidity (RH); if the bulk of your stash is Maduro, try dropping your humidor to 65% RH to see if you achieve a more satisfactory burn.

 

You are now rich in Maduro wisdom; got other tips you’d like to share with your cigar pals here? Drop us a comment below…

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Stan Walker
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Stan Walker

Nice article. Well written as always. Like the links to other articles. Thanks

Mike Crow
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Mike Crow

Very educational

Patty Martin
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Patty Martin

Appreciate the information. It is always nice to be able to explain information like this to fellow cigar smokers. Especially guys that are just starting out and ask me questions like this because i have been smoking cigars for a few years.

Dick Fischer
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Dick Fischer

Thanks for the quick lesson…

Dennis Wilder
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Dennis Wilder

Excellent comprehensive article. Very informative. If I may inquire, regarding maduros (and others), why, when a cigar is put out in water and left there after smoking (I do it for fire safety reasons when smoking outdoors) the water the next day is murky and dark. What is it in the (wrapper, binder, filler) that causes that?

Jeff Diamond
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Jeff Diamond

As a Maduro enthusiast, my go to is punch Rothschilde and cao America Potomac I noticed on the punch the box says maduro maduro but they promote it as an oscuro. I guess it’s potato potato. Good article

Michael Phillip Mitchell
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Michael Phillip Mitchell

Great article John!

Rick Wagner
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Rick Wagner

Thanks, John. You’ve explained a lot of why this is a favorite for me.

Dan Acevedo
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Dan Acevedo

Has anyone else heard about some of the larger, wont mention their names, cigar companies soaking leaves in not so good chemicals to advance the aging process of the Maduro. It’s not good. Also, those Crystal’s you see, it’s not “plume” theres no such thing as plume” whatch what you smoke, cause the almighty dollar makes good things bad!

Pete Johnston
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Pete Johnston

Very well written and informative!! Thanks..:)

John Beyenberg
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John Beyenberg

San Andreas Mexico,, are all the Maduro wrappers actually from or grown in this area of Mexico or are the seeds grown elsewhere?? Are there other tobacco’s beside Maduro’s used from there??

Ron Burgundy
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Ron Burgundy

Maduro’s are my favorite and your point about the humidity is spot on. I use 65% beads in my humidor and there are times that if I recharge them a little to heavily my RH% will spike up to 68-70% for a few days. I’ve had my Padrons and other sticks which are known to have a consistently perfect draw and burns become a struggle even with that 4-5% change until it settles back down.

John Pullo

John Pullo

Editor in Chief

This is not his picture, nor does he even have a beard. A solid 'B' student and occasional low-fi musician, John is a medley of cynicism and sarcasm crammed into a wrinkled Oxford shirt who makes it nearly intolerable to watch reality television with him in the same room. Interestingly, his Social Security number is all ones.

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